Was the Joseph Story Written durante Egypt During the Persian Period?

Egyptologists have long searched the details of the Joseph story for clues onesto when the story was written. Does the Jewish experience as verso sparpagliamento community per Egypt hold the clue preciso the story’s origin?

Egyptology and Bible Studies

From its very beginning, the field of Egyptology was interested, if not obsessed, with Egypt’s role con the Hebrew Bible. The wealth of Egyptian records vis a vis the dearth of contemporary Israelite or Canaanite accessorio-biblical records, encouraged Egyptologists onesto provide the historical retroterra for the holy scriptures.

Exemplifying this obsession is the New York Public Library bibliography, listing an astounding 182 works on Egypt and the Bible by the year 1924. Another 97 works were listed by 1941. Among these are the works of notable Egyptologists such as,

  • Emmanuel de Rouge (1811-1872, France),
  • Francois Chabas (1817-1882, France),
  • Wilhelm Spiegelberg (1826-1890, Germany),
  • (Henri) Edouard Naville (1844-1926, Switzerland),
  • Gaston Maspero (1846-1916, France),
  • Wilhelm Max Muller (1862-1919, Germany),
  • Sir Alan Gardiner (1879-1963, England).

The main objective of these studies was onesto verify the biblical accounts. This was neither masked nor veiled but explicitly proclaimed per such titles as Abraham Yahuda’s: The Accuracy of the Bible. The Stories of Joseph, the Exodus and Genesis Confirmed and Illustrated by Egyptian Monuments and Language.

Joseph mediante (which) Egypt?

Considering its Egyptian settings and the many Egyptian elements per the narrative, the story of Josephs’ descent onesto Egypt and his subsequent ascent sicuro Egyptian governance has been one of the major focal points of inter-disciplinary studies of the Hebrew Bible. Many studies have highlighted the genuine ancient Egyptian aspects mediante it and provided parallels onesto the names, titles, customs and motifs – all taken from the vast records of ancient Egypt.

However, the exact historical setting of the composition of the Joseph story continues sicuro elude scholars as they debate its connection to Egypt of the imperial era mediante the second millennium BCE or to the much later, Saite and Ptolemaic periods mediante the late first millennium BCE. Two important studies exemplify the range of approaches.

New Kingdom Egypt (1550-1070) – Jozef Vergote

Sopra his 1959 study, the Flemish Egyptologist, Jozef Vergote (1910-1992), summarized and confirmed the broad consensus that the Joseph story reflected an intimate knowledge of Egypt during its imperial period, known as the New Kingdom. During this period, Egypt controlled considerable regions per the Levant, and saw the integration of several Semitic-named individuals into Egyptian administrative offices. Identifying verso proto-type for Joe was therefore verso plausible idea.

Saite Egypt (664-525) – Donald Redford

Two decades later, a study by the Canadian Egyptologist and archaeologist, Donald Redford (b. 1934), revolutionized our view of Joseph’s Egypt through verso critical and comprehensive study of the Egyptian “coloring” sopra the Joseph’s story. Redford made use of all Ancient Egyptian sources, without confining his research sicuro New Kingdom Egypt or earlier periods. In doing so, Redford noted that some Egyptian elements sopra the Joseph story appeared quite late sopra the Egyptian supremazia, and although they could have represented earlier times as well, the critical mass of his comparanda pointed sicuro per date in the first millennium.

This was per niente doubt also the result of Redford’s conversation with contemporary views on biblical redaction and compilation as they were perceived in Europe, rather than sopra the US.

Customs from a Saite Egyptian Context

Redford’s study notes that many of https://datingranking.net/it/spotted-review/ the so called Egyptian practices per the Joseph story were not exclusive puro Egypt and could also be found in other Ancient Near Eastern civilizations. Such were the trade caravans, the presence of Asiatic slaves, traditions and titles associated with the royal courtaud, etc. Nevertheless, Redford focuses attention on some elements in the Joseph story that are purely Egyptian:

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